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In contrast to the general bias of Americans, the First- and Second-Bustle periods allowed the women of the time to find freedom through changes in the Victorian fashion. The women of the 19th century were able to achieve freedom through the bustle periods between 1867 and 1889 by gaining freedom of movement more so than through any of the other fashions, first by gaining social and economic benefit through smuggling items in their bustles and finally, through being able to remove the bustle for athletic wear. This research uses primary research sources and contemporary scholarly essays to analyze how these women used fashion for their own freedom, and this research also challenges modern-day views of Victorian fashion and provides better insight for media that portrays this time-period.
Everett, Sydney A.
"Fashion as Freedom - The Bustle and Women of the Late Victorian Era,"
The Kennesaw Journal of Undergraduate Research: Vol. 8:
1, Article 3.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/kjur/vol8/iss1/3