A review and synthesis of research literature regarding the role and influence of music on advertising effectiveness and in-store shopper moods and behavior is presented. A conceptual model is presented, with strong theoretical support found in classical conditioning, information processing, involvement, and mood states literature. The authors posit that a retailer should use a dual, concomitant music strategy as a component of an overall advertising and in-store marketing promotion plan. This strategy is presented in what the authors refer to as the Music Affect Model. While using the positive affects of music on consumer purchasing behavior as its core source of potency, the proposed strategy should likely lead to enhanced sales outcomes.