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From the 1960s onwards until recent time, a number of African States across the various regions have been faced with differing challenges that confront either stability, sovereignty, and in some cases, their permanent existence as evident during the period 1960-70 which was widely referred to as the decade of optimism, and the period 1970-80 which was clearly referred to as the decade of pessimism due to the number of events that manifested. Clearly in the light of this, Nation-Building in Africa has experienced chequered fortune in the past half a century of independence, up to present times, and the challenge of Nation-Building remains one of Africa's most pertinent concern as different African leaders made efforts to achieve national integration but the challenge persists. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the concept and project of Nation-building in relation to Africa's development using the lens of history and philosophy. The objective of this paper is to provide a terse clarification of key concepts, examine the historical background of nation-building in Africa, assess the challenges of nation-building in Africa, and investigate Africa's postindependence political and economic developments. The aim of this analysis is proffer scholarly recommendation geared towards enhancing nation-building projects across Africa.