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In March 2018, 44 Member States of the African Union signed up to the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA) in Kigali, Rwanda. There are many legal, social and policy issues to consider whenever Africa discusses either free trade or resource governance. There have been grave economic miscalculations in Africa's history. The article argues for a central emphasis on Pan-African economic and social solidarity and takes a frank look at some of the fundamental principles guiding contemporary neo-liberal economic institutions and critiques how these have treated Africa and African resources. The article describes some of the challenges and opportunities presented by free trade agreements and proffers some recommendations. This article also outlines principles guiding international trade in light of the relationships between such trade and the exploitation of Africa's resources. Above all, the article calls for vigilance against neoliberalism and argues for strengthened Pan-African economic and social solidarity.