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Discovery of significant oil resources in Uganda has been met with both optimism and skepticism. In as much as the country’s government argues that the discovery and exploitation of the oil will be a boost to the country’s development process, scholars, members of the political opposition and sections of the civil society contend that there is reason to fear for a possible oil resource curse. It is against this background that this study was undertaken; to scrutinize the content, process and implementation of the policies relating to exploitation of the oil and to determine whether these policies guarantee that the country will not suffer the resource curse. The study uses data generated from key informant interviews, which it augments with evidence culled from government publications, including policy documents and sector reports, and related literature. The study found that although the oil sector policies are comprehensive and were adopted through inclusive technical and political processes, the implementation of these policies is not transparent. Hence the country could become a victim of the resource curse. Recommendations towards redressing this problem are made.