Project Title

The Impact of Chemical Pesticides on Protein Structure and Dynamics: A Mass Spectrometry Investigation

Academic department under which the project should be listed

CSM - Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology

Research Mentor Name

Mohammad A. Halim

Abstract (300 words maximum)

Pesticides are chemical substances that are used to kill pests such as insects, rodents, fungi, and weeds. Chemical pesticides have detrimental effects on the ecosystem, and human and animal health. The purpose of this study is to use mass spectrometry technique to assess the impact of pesticides on protein structure and dynamics. Using charge distribution, MS can confirm protein folded and unfolded states. For a folded protein (native state), the mass spectra demonstrate few charge states mostly in the high m/z region; however, for an unfolded (denatured) protein, the mass spectra exhibit more charge state distribution in the low m/z region. In this study, heme containing Cytochrome C protein was used a model system to predict its structural changes on the addition of chemical pesticides. Various pesticides including Propanil, Bromoxynil, and Glyphosate were used for this study. When the Cytochrome C is prepared with water, mass spectra showed the charge state distribution from 4+ to 10+, in which 7+ is the most intense peak. However, when excess pesticides were added with cytochrome C, the charge state distribution is significantly shifted. When Propanil was added to the protein solution, charged states distribution changed from 6+ to 14+, where the most intense peak was noticed for 10+. This indicates that Cytochrome C is unfolded compared to its native state. However, when Glyphosate was added to the protein solution, 6+ to 9+ charge states were observed, which indicates that protein is still remained in the folded state. In the case of Bromoxynil, charge shifted from 6+ to 15+, where 9+ being the most intense peak. Similar trend was also observed when high concentration of pesticides was used. Therefore, propanil and bromoxynil pesticides significantly impacted the structure and dynamics of cytochrome C, however, such impact was not noticed for glyphosate.

Disciplines

Analytical Chemistry

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The Impact of Chemical Pesticides on Protein Structure and Dynamics: A Mass Spectrometry Investigation

Pesticides are chemical substances that are used to kill pests such as insects, rodents, fungi, and weeds. Chemical pesticides have detrimental effects on the ecosystem, and human and animal health. The purpose of this study is to use mass spectrometry technique to assess the impact of pesticides on protein structure and dynamics. Using charge distribution, MS can confirm protein folded and unfolded states. For a folded protein (native state), the mass spectra demonstrate few charge states mostly in the high m/z region; however, for an unfolded (denatured) protein, the mass spectra exhibit more charge state distribution in the low m/z region. In this study, heme containing Cytochrome C protein was used a model system to predict its structural changes on the addition of chemical pesticides. Various pesticides including Propanil, Bromoxynil, and Glyphosate were used for this study. When the Cytochrome C is prepared with water, mass spectra showed the charge state distribution from 4+ to 10+, in which 7+ is the most intense peak. However, when excess pesticides were added with cytochrome C, the charge state distribution is significantly shifted. When Propanil was added to the protein solution, charged states distribution changed from 6+ to 14+, where the most intense peak was noticed for 10+. This indicates that Cytochrome C is unfolded compared to its native state. However, when Glyphosate was added to the protein solution, 6+ to 9+ charge states were observed, which indicates that protein is still remained in the folded state. In the case of Bromoxynil, charge shifted from 6+ to 15+, where 9+ being the most intense peak. Similar trend was also observed when high concentration of pesticides was used. Therefore, propanil and bromoxynil pesticides significantly impacted the structure and dynamics of cytochrome C, however, such impact was not noticed for glyphosate.