Project Title

Associations with Insulin Resistance and Skinfold Measures in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

Academic department under which the project should be listed

WCHHS - Exercise Science and Sport Management

Faculty Sponsor Name

Katherine Ingram

Disciplines

Maternal and Child Health | Medicine and Health Sciences | Public Health

Abstract (300 words maximum)

Associations with Insulin Resistance and Skinfold Measures in Pregnant vs. Non-Pregnant Women

Sandstrom, Hannah¹; Neal, Carmella¹; Mora, Maria¹; Bryan, Mara²; Meireles, Juliana., Ph.D.²; Dabeer, Sadaf., Ph.D.²; Ingram, Katherine H., Ph.D.²

Key Words: HOMA-IR, Insulin Resistance, Skinfold, Pregnant, Non-Pregnant

Introduction: Studies have linked obesity in pregnant women with insulin resistance which is associated with body fat. A common, practical, and efficient method of measuring body fat is skinfold measurements. The association between insulin resistance and body fat measurements using skinfolds has been investigated but has neglected pregnant women populations. This study analyzes data between two groups, pregnant women and non-pregnant women. It is important to understand if body measurements, such as the skinfolds, can be used in earlier stages of pregnancy to identify insulin resistance because of the possible risk to fetal metabolic dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of the study is to understand the differences between skinfold measures and insulin resistance among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Method: Fasted glucose and insulin levels were used to assess insulin sensitivity using Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) • fasting serum insulin (mU/l) ÷ 22.5) in pregnant (N=23) and non-pregnant (N=39) women. The pregnant participants (mean age = 27 years) were measured at twenty weeks of pregnancy and had BMIs ranging from 19.70 to 52.10, were 74.07% White, 11.11% African American, 11.11% Hispanic, and 3.70% Other. The non-pregnant participants (mean age = 20.91 years ) had BMIs ranging from 23.26 to 36.4, were 43.59% White, 46.15% Hispanic, 5.13% African American, and 5.13% other. Multiple skinfold thickness sites were measured with calipers to assess regional subcutaneous fat (tricep, chest, midaxillary line, subscapularis, abdomen, suprailiac, and thigh) in both populations. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess correlation between HOMA-IR and skinfold measurements.

Results: The relationship between tricep, chest, and thigh measures and HOMA-IR were significant (p<.01). The subscapular, midaxillary, abdominal, and suprailiac measures were also significant (p<.05). The non-pregnant participants show no correlation between HOMA-IR and skinfold measures (p>.05).

Conclusions: Among the pregnant participants, there is a strong correlation between higher insulin resistance levels according to HOMA-IR and higher skinfold measurements. The association between higher insulin resistance and skinfold measurements was present in pregnant participants, but not in non-pregnant participants. These results indicate that pregnant women with higher levels of subcutaneous fat measured by skinfolds is associated with an increase in insulin resistance. Pregnant women should be made aware of this and take preventative measures to combat the onset of insulin resistance with frequent light to moderate exercise and diet modifications.

Project Type

Poster

How will this be presented?

Yes, in person

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Associations with Insulin Resistance and Skinfold Measures in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

Associations with Insulin Resistance and Skinfold Measures in Pregnant vs. Non-Pregnant Women

Sandstrom, Hannah¹; Neal, Carmella¹; Mora, Maria¹; Bryan, Mara²; Meireles, Juliana., Ph.D.²; Dabeer, Sadaf., Ph.D.²; Ingram, Katherine H., Ph.D.²

Key Words: HOMA-IR, Insulin Resistance, Skinfold, Pregnant, Non-Pregnant

Introduction: Studies have linked obesity in pregnant women with insulin resistance which is associated with body fat. A common, practical, and efficient method of measuring body fat is skinfold measurements. The association between insulin resistance and body fat measurements using skinfolds has been investigated but has neglected pregnant women populations. This study analyzes data between two groups, pregnant women and non-pregnant women. It is important to understand if body measurements, such as the skinfolds, can be used in earlier stages of pregnancy to identify insulin resistance because of the possible risk to fetal metabolic dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of the study is to understand the differences between skinfold measures and insulin resistance among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Method: Fasted glucose and insulin levels were used to assess insulin sensitivity using Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) • fasting serum insulin (mU/l) ÷ 22.5) in pregnant (N=23) and non-pregnant (N=39) women. The pregnant participants (mean age = 27 years) were measured at twenty weeks of pregnancy and had BMIs ranging from 19.70 to 52.10, were 74.07% White, 11.11% African American, 11.11% Hispanic, and 3.70% Other. The non-pregnant participants (mean age = 20.91 years ) had BMIs ranging from 23.26 to 36.4, were 43.59% White, 46.15% Hispanic, 5.13% African American, and 5.13% other. Multiple skinfold thickness sites were measured with calipers to assess regional subcutaneous fat (tricep, chest, midaxillary line, subscapularis, abdomen, suprailiac, and thigh) in both populations. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess correlation between HOMA-IR and skinfold measurements.

Results: The relationship between tricep, chest, and thigh measures and HOMA-IR were significant (p<.01). The subscapular, midaxillary, abdominal, and suprailiac measures were also significant (p<.05). The non-pregnant participants show no correlation between HOMA-IR and skinfold measures (p>.05).

Conclusions: Among the pregnant participants, there is a strong correlation between higher insulin resistance levels according to HOMA-IR and higher skinfold measurements. The association between higher insulin resistance and skinfold measurements was present in pregnant participants, but not in non-pregnant participants. These results indicate that pregnant women with higher levels of subcutaneous fat measured by skinfolds is associated with an increase in insulin resistance. Pregnant women should be made aware of this and take preventative measures to combat the onset of insulin resistance with frequent light to moderate exercise and diet modifications.

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