Today’s institutions of higher education dedicate significant time and effort to outfitting facilities with the latest technology equipment and packages and to providing faculty with training and support. Conversely, literature on technology implementation in higher educational settings typically focuses on procedures and timelines and makes little mention of how faculty perceive technology as a challenge or threat to their autonomy and professional identity. This literature review uses the terms “power”, “empowerment” and “technology” according to Foucault, Kanter, Rowlands, and others as the lens to examine connections between technology and faculty’s real or perceived loss of identity and autonomy. Instructional technology design experts have called for a return to the use of seminal learning theories to help bridge the learning gap for technology users. Findings in the literature drive the recommendation for using sociological and psychological Constructivist factors as the next step in identifying ways to implement technology that contribute to empowering 21st century higher education faculty and protecting their autonomy.