Manuscript Title

Politics and Ethics


Politics and Ethics seem to be strange bedfellows or in most cases mutually exclusive. The question is why should they be? This paper tries to address the issue by looking at the effects of negative campaigning and the influence of a political strategist. It ask the question: Does negative campaigning adversely or positively affect the electorate? Seven past elections and their strategies are examined, to see the effects of negative campaigning on the electorate and the election oncomes. The research on negative and positive campaigning is at best inconclusive, as it relates to effects on the electorate. There are no cold hard facts to support whether negative campaigning motivates voters to turn out to vote nor demotivates others to the point, they stay home and do not vote. The results of negative campaigning are usually interpreted differently, depending on whether you are the victor or the loser in an election. There are no established boundaries nor agreement on what constitutes ethical campaigning or ethical behavior, but this paper suggests eight common sense guidelines to promote ethical behaviors and strategies, when campaigning for political office.



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