This literature review also explores the influences in Julius Rosenwald’s life that inspired his philanthropic efforts. It could be said that Rosenwald’s generosity can be explained by his Jewish background; he was born a member of a group for whom discrimination and persecution had long tempered a sympathy for the oppressed. In his adult life, Rosenwald was imbued with the social justice teachings of famous Reform Rabbi Emil Hirsch (1851-1973), who ministered to him for many years at the Chicago Sinai Congregation (Ascoli, 2006). On the other hand, Rosenwald’s white, middle class background fails to explain how he was decades ahead of the vast majority of Americans in his thinking on racial advancement. In Rosenwald’s case, while his motivations for philanthropic giving can be traced to such sources as faith, family, and friends, his extraordinary vision for Black Americans seems almost inexplicable for a man of his time.

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