This paper evaluates performance and progress of Indian Agriculture since Independence. In addition, this paper also analyzes sources of agricultural growth and determinants of agricultural production. We use the decomposition test to analyze sources of agricultural growth and the production function approach to analyze determinants of agricultural production over the period 1950/51 through 2005/06. The study indicates that there is scope to increase both net sown area and gross sown area. The decomposition analysis indicates that rising output per hectare is the predominant source of agricultural growth for most of the crops and crop groups. The estimation of aggregate agricultural production function with both intercept and slope dummy indicates that land significantly affected the agricultural output growth during 1950/51-1964/65 and after that land became less significant and now labour and capital are significantly affecting the agricultural output growth.