Date of Award

Fall 10-23-2023

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Instructional Technology


Instructional Technology

Committee Chair

Dr. Yi Jin

Committee Chair/First Advisor

Dr. Laurie Dias

Second Committee Member

Dr. Julia Fuller


The purpose of this phenomenographic research was to qualitatively examine the experiences of teachers, instructional technology coaches, and administrators of technology integration during the emergency remote teaching (ERT) phase of the COVID-19 related school closures. Twelve participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview approach to gather information about their experiences of ERT using Moorhouse and Wong’s Phases to Innovation in Response to Crisis framework. An adapted phenomenographic data analysis approach was used to analyze the unique experiences of each participant group. Initially, teachers only used the technologies they were comfortable with and had used prior to school closures, but as the pandemic progressed and in-person learning remained closed, teachers began to experiment with new technologies to support the continuity of learning for students. This time was characterized by challenges related to technology integration and struggles related to supporting students in a virtual learning environment. Instructional technology coaches shared that initially, their role was primarily technical support, but as teachers’ needs to learn new technologies, their role also adapted to meet those needs. Participants in the administrative group shared their planning process to support teachers and ITCs to ensure students continued to have access to learning when the physical school buildings were closed. Overall, it was evident educators were not prepared for ERT. The results from this study will be useful for building, district, and state education leaders to plan and provide teachers with the necessary tools and professional development needed to effectively integrate instructional technology into their classrooms to advance the educational experience for students.