NOMA-enabled Backscatter Communications for Green Transportation in Automotive-Industry 5.0

Wali Ullah Khan, Shandong University
Asim Ihsan, Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Tu N. Nguyen, Kennesaw State University
Muhammad Awais Javed, COMSATS University Islamabad


Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use emerging 6G communication techniques such as Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) and backscatter communications for enhanced spectrum and energy efficiency. In this paper, we provide an introduction to green transportation and also discuss the advantages of using backscatter communications and NOMA in Automotive Industry 5.0. We also briefly review the recent work in the area of NOMA empowered backscatter communications. We discuss different use cases of backscatter communications in NOMA-enabled 6G vehicular networks. We also propose a multi-cell optimization framework to maximize the energy efficiency of the backscatter-enabled NOMA vehicular network. In particular, we jointly optimize the transmit power of the roadside unit and the reflection coefficient of the backscatter device in each cell by employing Dinkelbach method, dual theory and KKT conditions to obtain efficient solutions. Finally, we highlight some open issues and future research opportunities related to NOMA-enabled backscatter communications in 6G vehicular networks.