Clinical Importance of FNDC-5 and Selectin-E mRNA Expression Among Type 2 Diabetics with and without Obesity

Amit K. Verma, Jamia Millia Islamia
Alanoud Aladel, College of Applied Medical Sciences
Sadaf Dabeer, Kennesaw State University
Irfan Ahmad, King Khalid University


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is growing illnesses associated with metabolic dysregulation such as obesity affecting a large population become leading causes of death worldwide. Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC-5) and selectin-E were suggested to have effects on metabolism and diabetes, therefore present study aimed to evaluate the clinical importance of FNDC-5 and selectin-E among the T2DM patients with and without obesity. Methods: Study included cohort of 200 T2DM patients with and without obesity. We evaluated FNDC-5, selectin-E mRNA expression as well as vitamin-D, and vitamin-B12 levels in among the T2DM patients with and without obesity. Results: Study observed significant difference in biochemical parameters included in study. T2DM patients with obesity had significantly higher fasting blood glucose levels (p<0.0001) and HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) (p<0.0001) compared to those T2DM patients without obesity. T2DM patients with obesity also had higher systolic blood pressure (p=0.001), LDL (low density lipoprotein) (p=0.02), TG (triglycerides) (p=0.02) and cholesterol (p=0.01) compared to T2DM patients without obesity. The mRNA expression of FNDC-5 (p<0.0001) was lower in T2DM patients with obesity compared to T2DM patients without obesity. It was observed that the T2DM patients with vitamin-D deficiency had significantly lower FNDC-5 mRNA expression (p=0.03) when compared with those with sufficient vitamin-D level. T2DM patients with clinically normal vitamin-B12 level expressed 0.60 fold FNDC-5 mRNA expression while B12 deficient T2DM patients had 0.28 fold FNDC-5 mRNA expression (p=0.005). No as such significant association was was observed with selectin-E. A negative correlation of FNDC-5 mRNA expression with Post prandial glucose (mg/dl) (p=0.04) and TG (mg/dl) (p=0.02) was observed. Conclusion: FNDC-5 down regulation was observed with T2DM with obesity, vitamin-D and vitamin-B12 deficiency suggesting obesity, vitamin-D and vitamin-B12 deficiency could be the factor for FNDC-5 down-regulation leading to worseness or progression of disease. We suggest that FNDC-5 down-regulation could be used as an indicator for T2DM worseness and development of other associated complications.