Biomedical IoT: Enabling Technologies, Architectural Elements, Challenges, and Future Directions

Mohammed Aledhari, Kennesaw State University
Rehma Razzak, Kennesaw State University
Basheer Qolomany, University of Nebraska at Kearney
Ala Al-Fuqaha, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, College of Science and Engineering


This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of various technologies and protocols used for medical Internet of Things (IoT) with a thorough examination of current enabling technologies, use cases, applications, and challenges. Despite recent advances, medical IoT is still not considered a routine practice. Due to regulation, ethical, and technological challenges of biomedical hardware, the growth of medical IoT is inhibited. Medical IoT continues to advance in terms of biomedical hardware, and monitoring figures like vital signs, temperature, electrical signals, oxygen levels, cancer indicators, glucose levels, and other bodily levels. In the upcoming years, medical IoT is expected replace old healthcare systems. In comparison to other survey papers on this topic, our paper provides a thorough summary of the most relevant protocols and technologies specifically for medical IoT as well as the challenges. Our paper also contains several proposed frameworks and use cases of medical IoT in hospital settings as well as a comprehensive overview of previous architectures of IoT regarding the strengths and weaknesses. We hope to enable researchers of multiple disciplines, developers, and biomedical engineers to quickly become knowledgeable on how various technologies cooperate and how current frameworks can be modified for new use cases, thus inspiring more growth in medical IoT.