A Fully Authenticated Diffie-Hellman Protocol and Its Application in WSNs
The secure authenticated key establishment between nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has not been fully solved in the existing schemes. It's a good idea to apply the Diffie-Hellman protocol to address it perfectly, but the existing authenticated Diffie-Hellman (ADH) protocols are not perfect because their authentication are partial or delayed. In this paper, we first present a concept of full authentication and propose a new fully authenticated Diffie-Hellman (FADH) prototype with light-certificate-based authentication. And then based on the theory of elliptic curve cryptography, we construct the TinyADH (Tiny Authenticated Diffie-Hellman) protocol with applying the FADH in WSNs. Compared with the existing similar solutions, TinyADH has lower communication overload, is easier to implement into existing standards, and more secure under equivalent computational complexity. The experimental results show that using this scheme for a successful key agreement between two nodes averagely takes about 54 seconds on TelosB. Moreover, the simulation results indicate that repeated key agreement can improve the secure connectivity rate. However, considering the cost performance ratio, it is advisable to take 2 runs of the negotiation.