Intensity Dependent Effects of Interval Resistance Training on Myokines and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Males With Obesity
Exercise Science and Sport Management
Objective: To determine the effects of different intensities of interval resistance training (IRT) protocols on the levels of select myokines (decorin, follistatin, myostatin, activin A, transforming growth factor beta-1 [TGF-β1]), and cardiometabolic and anthropometric measures in males with obesity. Methods: Forty-four obese males (age: 27.5 ± 9.4 yr.; height: 165.4 ± 2.8 cm; weight: 97.9 ± 2.6 kg and BMI: 35.7 ± 4.3 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n=11 per group): low-intensity interval resistance training (LIIRT), moderate-intensity interval resistance training (MIIRT), high-intensity interval resistance training (HIIRT) or control (C). The LIIRT group performed 10 exercises in 3 sets of 40% (20 repetitions), the MIIRT group performed 10 exercises in three sets of 60% (13 repetitions), and the HIIRT group performed 10 exercises in three sets of 80% (10 repetitions) of one maximum repetition (1RM), which were followed with active rest of 20% of 1RM and 15 repetitions. The resistance training groups exercised ~70 min per session, 3 days per week, for 12 weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Results: Baseline levels of myokines, cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometry, body composition, and cardio-respiratory fitness were not different between the four groups (p>0.05). The group x time interactions for decorin, activin A, follistatin, myostatin, and TGF-β1, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density cholesterol (HDL), low-density cholesterol (LDL), anthropometry, body composition, and cardio-respiratory fitness were statistically significant (p<0.05). There were increases in post-test values for decorin, follistatin, HDL (p<0.05) and decreases in TC, TG, TGF-β1, LDL, and myostatin levels in the LIIRT, MIIRT, and HIIRT groups compared to pretest values (p<0.05). Changes in fat mass, VO2peak, HDL, TG, glucose, activin A, decorin were not significant in LIIRT compared to the control group, while changes in activin A, follistatin, and TFG-β1 levels were greater in HIIRT and MIIRT groups compared to the LIIRT group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The LIIRT, MIIRT, and HIIRT protocols all produced beneficial changes in decorin, activin A, follistatin, myostatin, and TGF-β1 levels, and cardiometabolic risk factors, with greater effects from the MIIRT and HIIRT protocols compared to LIIRT.
Frontiers in Endocrinology
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)