Insights into the leaves of Ceriscoides campanulata: Natural proanthocyanidins alleviate diabetes, inflammation, and esophageal squamous cell cancer via in vitro and in silico models
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Fourteen flavones (1–14) including twelve polymethoxylated flavones, two A-type proanthocyanidins (oligomeric flavonoids) (15, 16), one benzoyl glucoside (17), one triterpenoid (18), and one phenylpropanoid (19) were isolated from the leaves of the South Asian medicinal plant Ceriscoides campanulata (Roxb.) Tirveng (Rubiaceae). The structures of the compounds were identified based on their spectroscopic and spectrometric data and in comparison with literature data. Isolated compounds were tested in vitro against inflammatory enzymes (COX-2, iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α), esophageal squamous carcinoma cell line (TE13), and carbohydrate digestion enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase). Proanthocyanidins 15 and 16 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory response of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α in RAW 264.7 cells. Proanthocyanidins also satisfactorily inhibited the regrowth (64%), migration (51%), and formation of tumor-spheres (48%) in ESCC cell line TE13 at 50% toxic concentration. Compounds 15 and 16 showed the most potent effect against mammalian α-amylase (IC50 8.4 ± 0.3 μM and 3.5 ± 0.0 μM, respectively) compared to reference standard acarbose (IC50 5.9 ± 0.1 μM). As yeast α-glucosidase inhibitors, compounds 15 and 16 also displayed significant activities (IC50 6.2 ± 0.3 and 4.7 ± 0.1 μM, respectively), while compounds 1–6 displayed weaker α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, ranging from 49 to 142 μM, compared to acarbose (IC50 665 ± 42 μM). In an anticholinesterase assay, compounds 1, 2, 6 (IC50 51 ± 2, 53 ± 7, 64 ± 5 μM, respectively), and 4 (IC50 44 ± 1 μM) showed moderate inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation analyses of compounds 15 and 16 were performed against human pancreatic α-amylase and human lysosomal acid α-glucosidase to elucidate the interactions of these compounds in the respective enzymes' active sites.
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