Dynamic façades design typologies, technologies, measurement techniques, and physical performances across thermal, optical, ventilation, and electricity generation outlooks



Additional Department

Construction Management

Document Type


Publication Date



Nations have attempted to commit to the Kyoto Protocol and effectively reduce hazardous emissions through energy-efficient design techniques, strategies, and policies (optimized building orientation and location, and photovoltaic systems and green materials). However, there are shortcomings in achieving these goals. The Energy Efficiency Directive, Energy Performance Directive of Buildings, and Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers have recently focused on dynamic façade design that can considerably contribute to energy-efficient building design and low-emission development. This study comprehensively investigates and identifies dynamic façade typologies, technologies, and techniques while comparing and synthesizing them against architectural design, structural engineering, and material science. In particular, the study investigated the applications, functionalities, and state-of-the-art (SOTA) of dynamic façades. In addition, the structural and architectural characteristics, environmental performance, and effectiveness of dynamic façades (clustered into opaque, transparent, and semi-transparent surface types) have been explored and synthesized. The study concludes that applying the dynamic façade concept entails challenges and opportunities for building developers, users, and auditors. Furthermore, dynamic façade design is a trade-off between environmental analysis data (such as luminance and solar radiation) and user comfort and satisfaction with both the light and thermal intensity of external and internal environments. In addition, dynamic façades can actively and selectively control the heat transfer and energy flow while potentially reducing the internal heating and cooling loads. Therefore, adaptive façades are designed based on behavior changes at the micro-scale (i.e., material structure) or macro-scale (i.e., moving part configuration).

Journal Title

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Journal ISSN




Digital Object Identifier (DOI)