Translation, cultural adaptation, and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Combat Exposure Scale (CES-S) with U.S. military Spanish speaking Latino veterans living in the Caribbean: A cross-sectional preliminary data study
OBJECTIVE: The Combat Exposure Scale (CES) is one of the most used self-report instruments to assess various combat situations experienced by military personnel. This article presents a comprehensive translation and cultural adaptation of the CES to Spanish and its psychometric properties. METHOD: Fifty-five (n = 55) U.S. military Spanish-speaking Latino veterans diagnosed with combat-related PTSD were recruited from 2018 to 2020 to participate in this cross-sectional preliminary data study at the VA Caribbean Health Care System. The translation and cultural adaptation followed the recommendations by Chavez & Canino (2005). Statistical analysis included principal component factor analysis, internal consistency analysis, and content validity analysis. It included two different expert bilingual committees composed of veterans with combat experience and university professors at a doctoral level. RESULTS: The CES-S consists of seven items. The principal component factor analysis resulted in one factor and the content validity of =1. CES-S has an internal consistency of α=.84. CONCLUSION: The CES-S is suitable for its use with Spanish-speaking Latino veteran samples. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
Psychological trauma : theory, research, practice and policy
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Rivera-Rivera, Naiomi; Pérez-Pedrogo, Coralee; Calaf, Myralys; and Sánchez-Cardona, Israel, "Translation, cultural adaptation, and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Combat Exposure Scale (CES-S) with U.S. military Spanish speaking Latino veterans living in the Caribbean: A cross-sectional preliminary data study" (2022). Faculty Publications. 5465.