A multi-center quadrature scheme for the molecular continuum
A common way to evaluate electronic integrals for polyatomic molecules is to use Becke's partitioning scheme (Becke and Chem, 1988) in conjunction with overlapping grids centered at each atomic site. The Becke scheme was designed for integrands that fall off rapidly at large distances, such as those approximating bound electronic states. When applied to states in the electronic continuum, however, Becke scheme exhibits slow convergence and it is highly redundant. Here, we present a modified version of Becke scheme that is applicable to functions of the electronic continuum, such as those involved in molecular photoionization and electron–molecule scattering, and which ensures convergence and efficiency comparable to those realized in the calculation of bound states. In this modified scheme, the atomic weights already present in Becke's partition are smoothly switched off within a range of few bond lengths from their respective nuclei, and complemented by an asymptotically unitary weight. The atomic integrals are evaluated on small spherical grids, centered on each atom, with size commensurate to the support of the corresponding atomic weight. The residual integral of the interstitial and long-range region is evaluated with a central master grid. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated by evaluating integrals involving integrands containing Gaussian Type Orbitals and Yukawa potentials, on the atomic sites, as well as spherical Bessel functions centered on the master grid. These functions are representative of those encountered in realistic electron-scattering and photoionization calculations in polyatomic molecules.
Computer Physics Communications
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