D-Amphetamine Exposure Differentially Disrupts Signaling Across Ontogeny in the Zebrafish
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Prescriptive and illicit amphetamine (AMPH) use continues to increase along with the likelihood that during an individual's lifetime, the drug deleteriously influences the growth and connectivity of behavior circuits necessary for survival. Throughout ontogeny, neural circuits underlying these behaviors grow in complexity, gradually integrating many sensory inputs that trigger higher order coordinated motor responses. In the present study, we examine how AMPH disrupts the establishment of these circuits at critical neurodevelopmental periods, as well as the communication among established survival circuits. Zebrafish embryos (from 1 hpf) were raised in AMPH solutions, growth parameters and escape behavior were assessed at 24 and 48 hpf, and spinal cord tissues analyzed for differences in excitatory-inhibitory signaling balance among treatments. Adult fish were fed an acute dosage of AMPH over an 11-day conditioned place preference (PP) paradigm during which behaviors were recorded and brain tissues analyzed for alterations in dopaminergic signaling. AMPH negatively affects embryonic growth and slows the execution of escape behavior, suggesting an imbalance in locomotor signaling. Although local spinal circuits provide primary escape modulation, no differences in inhibitory glycinergic, and excitatory glutamatergic signaling were measured among spinal neurons. AMPH also influenced place preference in adult zebrafish and resulted in the increased expression of dopamine signaling proteins (DRD1) in brain areas governing survival behaviors.
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