Crotalus atrox venom-induced cellular toxicity: Early wound progression involves reactive oxygen species
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Understanding the mechanisms that produce cellular cytotoxicity is fundamental in the field of toxicology. Cytotoxic stimuli can include organic toxins such as hemorrhagic snake venom, which can lead to secondary complications such as the development of necrotic tissue and profuse scarring. These clinical manifestations mimic cytotoxic responses induce by other organic compounds such as organic acids. We used hemorrhagic snake venom and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T) as a model system to better understand the cellular responses involved in venom induced cytotoxicity. Cells stimulated with Crotalus atrox (CA) (western diamondback) venom for 4 or 10 h demonstrated significant cytotoxicity. Results from 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H DCF-DA) assays determine CA venom stimulation induces a robust production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) over a 3-h time course. In contrast, pretreatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-catalase or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) prior to CA venom stimulation significantly blunted H DCFDA fluorescence fold changes and showed greater cytoprotective effects than cells stimulated with CA venom alone. Pre- incubating HEK293T cells with the NADPH oxidase (NOX) pan-inhibitor VAS2870 prior venom stimulation significantly minimized the venom-induced oxidative burst at early timepoints (≤2 h). Collectively, our experiments show that pre-application of antioxidants reduces CA venom induce cellular toxicity. This result highlights the importance of ROS in the early stages of cytotoxicity and suggests muting ROS production in noxious injuries may increase positive clinical outcomes.
Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
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