Analytics and Data Science Institute

Additional Department

Statistics and Analytical Sciences

Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 4-7-2020

Embargo Period



Recent research to analyze and discuss cultural differences has employed a combination of five major dimensions of individualism–collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, femininity– masculinity (gender role differentiation), and long-term orientation. Among these dimensions, individualism–collectivism has received the most attention. Chronologically, this cultural attribute has been regarded as one, then two, and more recently, four dimensions of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. However, research on this issue has not been conclusive and some have argued against this expansion. The current study attempts to explain and clarify this discussion by using a shortened version of the scale developed by Singelis et al. ((1995) Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: a theoretical and measurement refinement. CrossCultural Research 29(3): 240–275). Our analysis of aggregate data from 802 respondents from nine countries supports the expanded view. Data aggregation was based on the Mindscape Theory that proposes inter- and intracultural heterogeneity. This finding is reassuring to scholars who have been using the shortened version of the instrument because confirmatory factor analysis indicated its validity. The findings of the present study provides clarification of some apparent ambiguity in recent research in specifying some cultures such as India, Israel, and Spain as individualists or collectivists. By separating the four constructs, more nuanced classification is possible. Also, such a distinction enables us to entertain such concepts as the Mindscape Theory that proposes a unique intracultural and transcultural heterogeneity that do not stereotype the whole culture as either individualist or collectivist

Journal Title

International Journal of Cross Cultural Management





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