Stigma and Discrimination: Threats to Living Positively with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Over the past 2 decades, the number of individuals remaining healthy and living longer with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased dramatically. In addition, the number of new cases of HIV, AIDS-related deaths, and HIV infections in children has decreased globally. These changes are a direct result of advances in treatment and the development and availability of more effective antiretroviral medications. Despite such treatment advances, individuals with HIV continue to confront challenges to living positively, including being subject to stigma and discrimination. The following is a historical overview of the concept of stigma and an exploration of the causes and consequences of multilevel stigma for individuals with HIV. In addition, strategies individuals and societies use to manage stigma and avoid negative experiences are discussed.
Nursing Clinics of North America
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