New techniques in computational and information sciences have played an important role in keeping advancing the so called knowledge economy. Advanced techniques have been introduced to or emerging in almost every field of the scientific world for hundreds of years, which has been accelerated since the late 1970s when the advancement in computers and digital technologies brought the world into the Information Era. In addition to the rapid development of computational intelligence and new data fusion techniques in the past thirty years [1–4], mobile and cloud computing, grid computing driven numeric computation models, big data intelligence, and other emerging technologies have not only expanded the scope of traditional simulation and modelling in many scientific and engineering disciplines [5–8] but also enabled the fusion of traditional and contemporary methods in almost every field in the world [9–11].
Mathematical Problems in Engineering
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