We present an analytical framework to compare media bias under direct and indirect government control. In this context, we show that direct control can lead to a smaller bias and higher welfare than indirect control. We further show that the size of the advertising market affects media bias only under direct control. Media bias, under indirect control, is not affected by the size of the advertising market.
Roy, A. (2015). Media bias under direct and indirect government control: when is the bias smaller?. Economics Bulletin, 35(3), 1709-1717.