Globalization and International R&D Flows into Emerging Markets: Nomothetic Evidence
In this paper we analyze the impact of some determinants of international R&D expenditures made by overseas affiliates of MNCs. We also examine whether globalization has expedited international R&D investment flows since 1995, the year that internet access was opened up to mass usage and trade barriers began to concertedly decrease worldwide, following the emergence of the World Trade Organization (WTO). We find evidence that ethnic diversity, political stability, and patent rights enforcement promotes international flows of R&D investments. Increased workers’ educational levels appear to have contradicting effects on international R&D investment flows. When we isolated the effects of globalization into its component forces of technological advancement and trade liberalization, we found some notable interaction effects, especially involving trade barriers. Increased globalization since 1995 has increased international R&D flows in the face of diminishing tariff barriers. A dataset containing more countries and more recent time horizons should help to unravel some of the counter-intuitive and confounding results that our study has unearthed.
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