Effects of Job-Embedded Professional Development on Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Content Area Classrooms: Results of a Three-Year Study
Secondary and Middle Grades Education
During the mid-1990s, members of the global education community issued the Salamanca Statement that described inclusive schools as effective educational environments that also combat discrimination. Since that time, considerable progress has been made in moving students with disabilities from separate placements to inclusive settings. In the USA, nearly 10% of the school-aged population needs special education services and of that group, 96% are educated in general education classrooms 80% of the time. Placement of such large numbers of students with disabilities has increased the diversity of the student body and the complexity of teaching of core curriculum. For teachers and students to be successful, teachers need on-going professional development. This paper explores the efficacy of a Job-Embedded Professional Development (JEPD) model in six schools (urban, suburban and rural) that had made a commitment towards including all students with significant disabilities in general education core curriculum. Results are discussed for the six schools as well as for students identified as displaying behaviour disorders, autism or intellectual disabilities.