Profiling Large-scale Change Efforts
Investigated the reasons why organizations initiated major planned change efforts, what they were changing, and how changes were being made. Individuals with large-scale change (LSC) program experience provided descriptions of 310 such efforts. A typical LSC effort was initiated in response to or in anticipation of external environmental changes. Specific goals included increased productivity and responsiveness to customers or clients, improved product quality, increased employee participation, and decreased costs. Team building was the most frequently used change technique.
Covin, T. J., & Kilmann, R. H. (1991). Profiling large-scale change efforts. Organization Development Journal, 9(2), 1-8.