Interaction of Liosome-encapsulated Cisplatin with Biomolecules
Chemistry and Biochemistry
We prepared liposomes by hydrating 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipid with aqueous solutions of three 'probe' molecules- cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) ( cis-[Pt(NH)Cl], cisplatin), guanosine 5′-monophosphate (5′-GMP), and 9-ethylguanine (9-EtG)-in phosphate-buffered saline as well as N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine- N′-ethanesulfonic acid buffer. The positively charged hydrolysis product of cisplatin, [Pt(NH)Cl(HO)], is in the inner core of the liposomes and negatively charged 5′-GMP embeds in the lipid bilayer of liposomes. In the presence of cisplatin, the size of the liposomes remains unchanged, and for 5′-GMP-embedded liposomes the size increases significantly compared with that of empty or control liposomes. In contrast, the neutral biomolecule 9-EtG was found to be dispersed in the exterior bulk water and the size of the liposomes remained the same as that of empty or control liposomes. When cisplatin-containing liposomes mix with 5′-GMP-embedded liposomes or liposomes with 9-EtG, the N7 nitrogen atom of 5′-GMP or 9-EtG binds the cisplatin, thus replacing the 'leaving groups' and forming a bisadduct. After 48 h of mixing, the size of the liposomes changes for the mixture of 5′-GMP-embedded liposomes and cisplatin-containing liposomes. We used H and P NMR spectroscopic techniques to monitor incorporation or association of cisplatin and biomolecules with liposomes and their subsequent reactions with each other. The dynamic light scattering technique provided the size distribution of the liposomes in the presence and absence of probe molecules.