Chemically Enhanced Phytoextraction of Lead-Contaminated Soils

Document Type


Publication Date



The effects of the combined application of soil fungicide (benomyl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on lead (Pb) phytoextraction by ryegrass (Lolium perenne) were examined. Twenty-five pots of Pb-contaminated soil (100 mg Pb kg−1) were seeded with ryegrass and randomly arranged into the following treatments: (1) Control, (2) benomyl, (3) EDTA, (4) benomyl and EDTA (B+E) and, (5) benomyl followed by an application of EDTA 14 days later (B…E). Chemicals were applied when plants had reached maximum growth. Plants were analyzed for foliage Pb concentration using inductively coupled plasma argon plasma (ICAP) spectrometry. The synergistic effects of the combined benomyl and EDTA application (treatments 4 and 5) were made evident by the significantly (p<0.05) highest foliage Pb concentrations. However, the foliage dry biomass was significantly lowest for plants in treatments 4 and 5. The bioaccumulation factor (BF) and phytoextraction ratio (PR) were highest for plants in treatment 5 followed by plants in treatment 4.