This study explored patterns of identity communication between Caucasian parents and their adopted Chinese daughters. As they grow up in "biracial" and "bicultural" families, adoptees must integrate multiple identities of being "ethnically Chinese," "culturally American," "female," "abandoned," and "adopted." Using qualitative methods, the researchers conducted 1-1 ½ hour in-depth interviews of adoptive parents to identify communication patterns and strategies used to create and manage the bicultural identities of their Chinese daughters.
National Communication Association
Gao, H., & Womack, D. (2008). Is She Chinese or American? On the Identity Communication Patterns between Caucasian Parents and their Adopted Chinese Daughters in the U.S.