Antidiabetic Vanadium Compound and Membrane Interfaces: Interface-facilitated Metal Complex Hydrolysis

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The interactions of metabolites of the antidiabetic vanadium-containing drug bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV) with lipid interface model systems were investigated and the results were used to describe a potentially novel mechanism by which these compounds initiate membrane-receptor-mediated signal transduction. Specifically, spectroscopic studies probed the BMOV oxidation and hydrolysis product interaction with interfaces created from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) which mimics the positively charged head group on phosphatidylcholine. H and V NMR spectroscopies were used to determine the location of the dioxobis(maltolato)oxovanadate(V) and the maltol ligand in micelles and reverse micelles by measuring changes in the chemical shift, signal linewidth, and species distribution. Both micelles and reverse micelles interacted similarly with the complex and the ligand, suggesting that interaction is strong as anticipated by Coulombic attraction between the positively charged lipid head group and the negatively charged complex and deprotonated ligand. The nature of the model system was confirmed using dynamic light scattering studies and conductivity measurements. Interactions of the complex/ligand above and below the critical micelle concentration of micelle formation were different, with much stronger interactions when CTAB was in the form of a micelle. Both the complex and the ligand penetrated the lipid interface and were located near the charged head group. These studies demonstrate that a lipid-like interface affects the stability of the complex and raise the possibility that ligand exchange at the interface may be important for the mode of action for these systems. Combined, these studies support recently reported in vivo observations of BMOV penetration into 3T3-L1 adipocyte membranes and increased translocation of a glucose transporter to the plasma membrane.