Diversity and Representation in the U.S. Federal Government: Analysis of the Trends of Federal Employment
This article aims to describe the trends in the current federal employment with regard to diversity and representation. To do so, it examines the diversity and representation of federal employee populations by agency and by pay or grade level. While the federal government has been successful in diversifying its employee populations by employing women and minorities, their employment still appears to be concentrated on the lower-and middle-level positions, resulting in large underrepresentation at the higher managerial and executive levels. This study, by analyzing the 2004 demographic data of federal employees by agency and by grade level, evaluates the horizontal and vertical integration of women and minorities in the federal government. The findings show that while race or gender groups in the federal government are equally represented across federal agencies, women and minorities are still underrepresented at the higher echelons. This article provides insight into improving the representation of women and minorities in the federal government.
Choi, S. (2011). Diversity and representation in the U.S. federal government: Analysis of the trends of federal employment. Public Personnel Management, 40(1), 25-46.