Date of Award

Spring 4-1-2024

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education in Secondary and Middle Grades Chemistry Education


Department of Secondary and Middle Grades Education

Committee Chair/First Advisor

Dr. Kimberly Cortes

Second Advisor

Dr. Michael Dias

Third Advisor

Dr. Michelle Head


The purpose of this study was to investigate how high school Honors chemistry students create and learn from analogies that were created using the Frayer Model. Pragmatism, analogies in science, and Reality Pedagogy served as the theoretical foundation of this study. A phenomenography method was used to answer the following research questions: What connections do high school honors chemistry students make when using analogies relating chemistry concepts to their prior knowledge, interest, or hobbies? What are high school honors chemistry students’ perceptions of the use of the Frayer Model for analogy creation? How do high school honors chemistry students of varying chemistry motivation levels view the process of creating analogies between chemistry and their daily lives? Data was collected via Frayer Models, exit tickets, and interviews. The Frayer Model, exit ticket, and interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis, however this study searched for commonalities shared between all participants. The study occurred in a public, coastal urban high school with a technical and career program. Students must apply to gain entry into the school if they have specific grade point averages. The results revealed that through the use of the Frayer Model as scaffolding to build chemistry analogies linked to relevant real-world knowledge, the students felt that they understood the chemistry concepts better. These findings helped address the current gap in studies related to Frayer Models and science-based analogies in a secondary classroom. This study has shown potential for future studies into aspects of the study and how this Frayer Model using analogies would be used within other schools in the same county.

Available for download on Friday, October 24, 2025