Date of Submission

Spring 5-9-2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Architecture



Primary Advisor

Arief Setiawan

Secondary Advisor

Christopher Welty


This thesis started with an interest in transformable architecture which will allow it to become adaptive. Zuk and Clark, in “Kinetic Architecture,” argued that modern architecture was outdated because of its static nature. Architecture can address these challenges in a simple and intentional manner if kinetics are included. This removes demolition and expensive remodeling. Plants and animals adapt kinetically, such as growing cells in the opposite direction in which they were bent, sets of muscles that flex and extend to kinetically move a limb, or transforming its whole body and positioning each limb strategically to maximize the range of movement and minimize the effort. All of these concepts are applicable in architecture.

The research started with various mechanisms that enable movement; from joints in hinges or folding mechanisms, to pivoting systems that revolve around a defined axis, to sliding and telescopic mechanisms that allow elements to be displaced along a defined path. I developed a taxonomy of to organize these kinetic examples. The categories include mechanism (sliding, telescopic, pivoting-rotating, hinging-folding, and pneumatic structures), transformations of geometry (scale, change of volume, addition-subtraction, and deformation), architectural elements (point, line, plane, and volume), direction of movement (horizontal, vertical, diagonal, and axial), energy input (human, hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical), transformations of space enclosure, open, hybrid), and physical components(partition, roof, floor, and structure).

This thesis raised the following questions: What are the architectural design principles that can be applied to create spatial experiences? How are these principles incorporated into kinetic architecture? How can we create multiple spatial experiences based on the possibility to change space? In what situations is transformable architecture more convenient than conventional static architecture? These questions are explored in a series of studies that led to the conceptual design of a collapsible skyscraper.

Included in

Architecture Commons