The struggle for resource control in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria has been energized following decades of total neglect of the oil producing region. Since oil in this region contributes substantially to the nation’s economy, many would have expected that the cow that produces the milk will be well fed. Nonetheless, the region is poorly neglected in terms of infrastructural development, environmental protection, and worst of all, human development. This analysis examines why the non-state actors want the control of oil resources in the Niger Delta region, how the conflicting parties have pursued their demands, the effect of the conflicts on the region, Nigeria, and the international community. In sum, the analysis concludes with some policy recommendations for solving the conflict.