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Abstract

In recent times, there has been an increased outbreak of conflicts across the globe, particularly in areas experiencing livelihood fragility. Available literature suggests that in a society where livelihoods are threatened, minimal, or non-existent, the people are generally more overwhelmed and prone to violence and conflict. This paper consolidates the available literature on livelihoods and conflict, with the aim of identifying the nexus between the two concepts. The author particularly interrogates the matrix between fragility of livelihoods and armed conflicts, with emphasis on Boko Haram and the Niger Delta conflicts. The article notes that there seems to be a large pool of vulnerable citizens from where Boko Haram members are continuously being recruited. The article establishes that there is greater fragility of livelihoods in that part of the country, the northern part of Nigeria. The article also engages with the Nigerian legislative framework on livelihoods and concludes that it is grossly deficient. The author further enquires on the nature and context of sustainable livelihoods and conflict management in crisis-prone states. Among the many lessons learned and discussed is that sustainable livelihoods’ vulnerabilities have negative consequences, conflict being the prime one. Overall, the article concludes by making recommendations on how various factors and processes which inhibit sustainable livelihoods’ fragility can be addressed. The vulnerable members of the society must be given access to participatory, developmental, and sustainable livelihood projects.

Author Bio(s)

Abiodun Odusote teaches Constitutional Law at the University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria. His research interests focus on enjoyment and enforcement of socio-economic rights, enthronement of good governance, accountability in leadership, access to qualitative education, access to justice, promotion of democracy, and peace studies. Email: aodusote@unilag.edu.ng.