The abnā al-dawla: The Definition and Legitimation of Identity in Response to the Fourth Fitna
Reopens the question about the identity and provenance of the abã al-dawla of the Abbasid dynasty. Period when these individuals formed an identity; Previous definitions of abã al-dawla; Reason why they formed a collective.
Turner, J. P. (2004). The abnā al-dawla: The definition and legitimation of identity in response to the fourth fitna. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 124(1), 1-22.