A Simple Cosmology: General Relativity Not Required

Document Type


Publication Date



A pedagogical cosmology illustrates general relativity concepts, without requiring general or special relativity. Topics examined are the existence of a global time scale, proper vs coordinate variables, the variation of light speed in an expanding universe, the look-back paradox, the horizon, the red shift, the age of the universe, and the dynamics of the universe. An Appendix is devoted to space and time in general relativity, but can be skipped by readers unfamiliar with general relativity.