Shiki: A Critical Foundation for School Algebra in Japanese Elementary School Mathematics
An analysis of the Japanese elementary school (Grades 1 through 6) mathematics curriculum materials reveals that the study of functional relationships (patterns) is a major emphasis in Japan, as is the case in curricula from other countries. However, the Japanese curriculum considers the ideas related to mathematical expressions, called “shiki” in Japanese, as the second pillar of elementary school algebra. This chapter elaborates how a Japanese textbook series attempts to realize this emphasis on writing and interpreting mathematical expressions.
Watanabe, T. (2011). Shiki: A critical foundation for school algebra in Japanese elementary school mathematics. In: J. Cai & E. Knuth (eds.), Early Algebraization, pp. 109-124. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.